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Research Library

Since the first Polar heart rate monitor was developed in 1982, Polar Electro has been committed to conducting innovative physiological and sports medical research. In addition to our own research, Polar heart rate monitoring and analyzing technology has been used by numerous researchers in the fields of sports, exercise and health. In our Research Library you’ll find numerous articles about the research we and other organizations have carried out in relation to Polar products and exercise training.

The articles are listed under several different categories and are presented according to their published year. Complete reference information is given for each study, so the original work is easy to obtain from the library and reprint requests can be sent directly to the author.

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Validity and reliability of the heart rate monitors

2019

Accuracy of commercially available heart rate monitors in athletes: a prospective study
Pasadyn, S. R. ; Soudan, M. ; Gillinov, M. ; Houghtaling, P. ; Phelan, D. ; Gillinov, N. ; Bittel, B. ; Desai, M. Y. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2019 Aug; 9(4): 379-385

Accuracy of consumer-level and research-grade activity trackers in ambulatory settings in older adults
Tedesco, S. ; Sica, M. ; Ancillao, A. ; Timmons, S. ; Barton, J. ; O'Flynn, B. PLoS One. 2019; 14(5): e0216891

Accuracy of mHealth Devices for Atrial Fibrillation Screening: Systematic Review
Giebel, G. D. ; Gissel, C. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019 Jun; 7(6): e13641

Accuracy of optical heart rate measurement and distance measurement of a fitness tracker and their consequential use in sports
Budig, M. ; Höltke, V. ; Keiner, M. Exerc Sport Res 49, 402-409 (2019)

Accuracy of the energy expenditure during uphill exercise measured by the Waist-worn ActiGraph
Chang, C. -H. ; Lin, K.-C. ; Ho, C.-S. ; Huang, C.-C. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness 20 May 2019, Vol.17(2), pp.62-66

Accuracy of the wearable activity tracker Garmin Forerunner 235 for the assessment of heart rate during rest and activity
Støve, M.P., Haucke, E., Nymann, M.L., Sigurdsson, T., Larsen, B.T. Journal of Sports Sciences 18 April 2019, Vol.37(8), pp.895-901

Are wearable heart rate measurements accurate to estimate aerobic energy cost during low-intensity resistance exercise?
Reis, V. M. ; Vianna, J. M. ; Barbosa, T. M. ; Garrido, N. ; Vilaca Alves, J. ; Carneiro, A. L. ; Aidar, F. J. ; Novaes, J. PLoS ONE August 22, 2019, Vol.14(8), p.e0221284

Availability and performance of image-based, non-contact methods of monitoring heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation: A systematic review
Harford, M., Catherall, J., Gerry, S., Young, J.D., Watkinson, P. Physiological Measurement (2019), 40(6),06TR01

Comparison of a Wearable Tracker with Actigraph for Classifying Physical Activity Intensity and Heart Rate in Children
Kang, S., Kim, Y., Byun, W., Suk, J., Lee, J.-M. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2019), 16(15),2663

Continuous Distant Measurement of the User’s Heart Rate in Human-Computer Interaction Applications
Przybyło, J. Sensors (Basel). 2019 Oct; 19(19): 4205

Correction of estimation bias of predictive equations of energy expenditure based on wrist/waist-mounted accelerometers
Ho, C.- S. ; Chang, C. - H. ; Lin, K.- C. ; Huang, C. - C. ; Hsu, Y. - J. PeerJ Nov 4, 2019, Vol.7, p.e7973

Design and validation of a heart rate and speed monitoring device with intelligently controlled assistive rehabilitation elliptical
Pfeifer, C.M., Rowen, D.A., Buster, T.W., (...), Irons, S.L., Burnfield, J.M. Journal of Medical Devices 03/01/2019, Vol.13(1), p.015002

Dynamic heart rate measurements from video sequences using Canonical Component Analysis
Ling, S.-S., Paramesran, R., Yu, Y.-P. Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering (2019), 19(3), pp. 41-48

Effects of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Heart Rate Variability in Patients With Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: Comparison Between a 2-lead ECG and a Wearable Device
Goudman, L., Brouns, R., Linderoth, B., Moens, M. Neuromodulation : journal of the International Neuromodulation Society 25 December 2019

Establishing statistical stability for heart rate variability in horses
McDuffee, L., Mills, M., McNiven, M., Montelpare, W. Journal of Veterinary Behavior (2019), 32, pp. 30-35

Evaluation of Earbud and Wristwatch Heart Rate Monitors during Aerobic and Resistance Training
Bunn, J. ; Wells, E. ; Manor, J. ; Webster, M. Int J Exerc Sci. 2019; 12(4): 374-384

Heart Rate Measures From Wrist-Worn Activity Trackers in a Laboratory and Free-Living Setting: Validation Study
Müller, A. M. ; Wang, N. X. ; Yao, J. ; Tan, C. S. ; Low, I. C. C. ; Lim, N. ; Tan, J. ; Tan, A. ; Müller-Riemenschneider, F. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 02 October 2019, Vol.7(10), pp.e14120

Improved Heart-Rate Measurement from Mobile Face Videos
Lomaliza, J.-P., Park, H. Electronics (Switzerland), 2019, 8(6),663

Pilot Study Assessing the Influence of Skin Type on the Heart Rate Measurements Obtained by Photoplethysmography with the Apple Watch
Sañudo, B., De Hoyo, M., Muñoz-López, A. et al. J Med Syst (2019) 43: 195

Reliability of the Polar T31 Uncoded Heart Rate Monitor in Free Motion and Treadmill Activities
Montes, J. ; Navalta, J. W. Int J Exerc Sci. 2019; 12(4): 69-76

RR interval signal quality of a heart rate monitor and an ECG Holter at rest and during exercise
Gilgen-Ammann, R. ; Schweizer, T. ; Wyss, T. Eur J Appl Physiol 119, 1525-1532 (2019)

Standardizing Analytic Methods and Reporting in Activity Monitor Validation Studies
Welk, J. G. ; Bai, F.; Yang ; Lee, F., Jung-Min ; Godino, F., Job ; Saint-Maurice, F., Pedro ; Carr, F., Lucas Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019 Aug; 51(8): 1767-1780.

The Accuracy of Acquiring Heart Rate Variability from Portable Devices: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Dobbs, W.C., Fedewa, M.V., MacDonald, H.V. et al. Sports Med 49, 417-435 (2019)

The validity of two widely used commercial and research-grade activity monitors, during resting, household and activity behaviours
O’Driscoll, R. ; Turicchi, J. ; Hopkins, M.; Gibbons, C. ; Larsen, S. C. ; Palmeira, A. L. ; Heitmann, B. L. ; Horgan, G. W. ; Finlayson, G. ; Stubbs, R. J. Health Technol. (2019). https://doi-org.ezproxy.jyu.fi/10.1007/s12553-019-00392-7

Usefulness of Modern Activity Trackers for Monitoring Exercise Behavior in Chronic Cardiac Patients: Validation Study
Herkert, C. ; Kraal, J. J. ; van Loon, E. M. A. ; van Hooff, M. ; Kemps, H. M. C. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019 Dec; 7(12): e15045

Validation and comparison of three different heart rate measuring methods during treadmill performance diagnostics
Schulz, S.V.W., Enders, K., Rolser, N., Steinacker, J.M., Laszlo, R. Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin (2019), 70(7-8), pp. 183-190

Validation of a Photoplethysmographic Heart Rate Monitor: Polar OH1
Hermand, E., Cassirame, J., Ennequin, G., Hue, O. International Journal of Sports Medicine (2019), 40(7), pp. 462-467

Validation of Polar OH1 optical heart rate sensor for moderate and high intensity physical activities
Hettiarachchi, I. T. ; Hanoun, S. ; Nahavandi, D. ; Nahavandi, S. PLoS One. 2019; 14(5): e0217288

Validity and Reliability of the Polar A300's Fitness Test Feature to Predict VO2max
Cooper, K. D. ; Shafer, A. B. Int J Exerc Sci. 2019; 12(4): 393-401

Validity and Wearability of Consumer-based Fitness Trackers in Free-living Children
Brazendale, K. ; Decker, L. ; Hunt, E. T ; Perry, M. W. ; Brazendale, A. B. ; Weaver, R. G. ; Beets, M. W. Int J Exerc Sci. 2019; 12(5): 471-482

Version Reporting and Assessment Approaches for New and Updated Activity and Heart Rate Monitors
Collins, T. ; Woolley, S. I. ; Oniani, S. ; Pires, I. M. ; Garcia, N. M. ; Ledger, S. J. ; Pandyan, A. Sensors 01 April 2019, Vol.19(7), p.1705

Wearable sensors for monitoring the internal and external workload of the athlete
Seshadri, D. R. ; Li, R. T. ; Voos, J. E. ; Rowbottom, J. R. ; Alfes, C. M. ; Zorman, C. A. ; Drummond, C. K. NPJ Digit Med. 2019; 2: 71

Windows into human health through wearables data analytics
Witt, D. R., Kellogg, R. A., Snyder, M. P. & Dunn, J. Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering March 2019, Vol.9, pp.28-46

2018

A Pilot Study Validating Select Research-Grade and Consumer-Based Wearables Throughout a Range of Dynamic Exercise Intensities in Persons With and Without Type 1 Diabetes: A Novel Approach
Yavelberg, L.: Zaharieva, D.: Cinar, A.: Riddell, M. C.: Jamnik, V. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology May 2018, Vol.12(3), pp.569-576

Agreement analysis of oscillometric devices in the measure of resting heart rate in breast cancer survivors
Palma, M. R.: Vanderlei, L. C. M.: Ribeiro, F. E.: De Andrade, R. C. C.: Fregonesi, C. E. P. T.: Freitas Júnior, I. F.: Christofaro, D. G. D.  Blood Pressure Monitoring 2018, Vol.23(1), pp.33-36

Are heart rate monitors valuable tools for diagnosing arrhythmias in endurance athletes?
Gajda, R.: Biernacka, E. K.: Drygas, W. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports February 2018, Vol.28(2), pp.496-516

Bounded Kalman filter method for motion-robust, non-contact heart rate estimation
Prakash, S. K. A.: Tucker, C. S. Biomedical optics express 01 February 2018, Vol.9(2), pp.873-897

Classic electrocardiogram-based and mobile technology derived approaches to heart rate variability are not equivalent
Guzik, P.: Piekos, C.: Pierog, O.: Fenech, N.: Krauze, T.: Piskorski, J.: Wykretowicz, A.  International Journal of Cardiology 01 May 2018, Vol.258, pp.154-156

Comparative evaluation of heart rate-based monitors: Apple Watch vs Fitbit Charge HR
Bai, Y.: Hibbing, P.: Mantis, C.: Welk, G. J. Journal of sports sciences August 2018, Vol.36(15), pp.1734-1741

Comparisons in heart rate readings between the Bioconnected wireless exercise earpiece and a Polar T31-Coded Chest Strap during a GXT
Higgins, T. R.: Lloyd, T.: Manalansan, K.: McDonald, S.: Thomas, B. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise 01 September 2018, Vol.13(3), pp.530-540

Heart rate monitoring, activity recognition, and recommendation for e-coaching
De Pessemier, T.: Martens, L. Multimedia Tools and Applications 2018, Vol.77(18), pp.23317-23334

Heart Rate Variability During Exercise: A Comparison of Artefact Correction Methods
Giles, D. A.: Draper, N. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2018, Vol.32(3), pp.726-735

Improved peak detection technique for robust PPG-based heartrate monitoring system on smartphones
Lomaliza, Jean-Pierre ; Park, Hanhoon Multimedia Tools and Applications 2018, Vol.77(13), pp.17131-17155

Profiling the propagation of error from PPG to HRV features in a wearable physiological-monitoring device
Morelli, D. Bartoloni, L.: Colombo, M.: Plans, D.: Clifton, D. A. Healthcare Technology Letters 01 May 2018

Psychometric properties of the Zephyr bioharness device: a systematic review
Nazari, G.: Bobos, P.: MacDermid, J. C.: Sinden, K. E.: Richardson, J.: Tang, A. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation Feb 21, 2018, Vol.10(1)

Recording Heart Rate Variability of Dairy Cows to the Cloud—Why Smartphones Provide Smart Solutions
Wierig, M.: Mandtler, L. P.: Rottmann, P.: Stroh, V.: Müller, U.: Büscher, W.: Plümer, L. Sensors 01 August 2018, Vol.18(8), p.2541

Reliability and Validation of the Hexoskin Wearable Bio-Collection Device During Walking Conditions
Montes, J.: Young, J. C.: Tandy, R.: Navalta, J. W. International journal of exercise science 2018, Vol.11(7), pp.806-816

Step Count and Pulse Rate Detection Based on the Contactless Image Measurement Method
Lin, Y. C.: Lin, Y. H. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia August 2018, Vol.20(8), pp.2223-2231

Technical note: Evaluation of a wireless pulse oximeter for measuring arterial oxygen saturation and pulse rate in newborn Holstein Friesian calves
Kanz, P.: Krieger, S.: Drillich, M.: Iwersen, M.  Journal of Dairy Science July 2018, Vol.101(7), pp.6437-6442

The Accuracy and Validity of iOS-Based Heart Rate Apps During Moderate to High Intensity Exercise
Bouts, A. M.: Brackman, L.: Martin, E.: Subasic, A. M.: Potkanowicz, E. S. International journal of exercise science 2018, Vol.11(7), pp.533-540

The Polar ® OH1 Optical Heart Rate Sensor is Valid during Moderate-Vigorous Exercise
Schubert, M. M.: Clark, A.: De La Rosa, A. B. Sports Med Int Open 2018; 02(03): E67-E70

The validity and inter-device variability of the Apple Watch™ for measuring maximal heart rate
Abt, G.: Bray, J.: Benson, A. C. Journal of Sports Sciences Jul 2018, Vol.36(13), pp.1447-1452

Validation of Heart Rate Monitor Polar RS800 for Heart Rate Variability Analysis During Exercise
Hernando, D.: Garatachea, N.: Almeida, R.: Casajús, J. A.: Bailón, R.  Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2018, Vol.32(3), pp.716-725

Validation of the Apple Watch for Heart Rate Variability Measurements during Relax and Mental Stress in Healthy Subjects
Hernando, D.: Roca, S.: Sancho, J.: Alesanco, Á: Bailón, R.  Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 10 August 2018, Vol.18(8)

Validity of the Polar V800 monitor for measuring heart rate variability in mountain running route conditions
Caminal, P.: Sola, F.: Gomis, P.: Guasch, E.: Perera, A.: Soriano, N.: Mont, L. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2018, Vol.118(3), pp.669-677

Validity of Wearable Activity Monitors during Cycling and Resistance Exercise
Boudreaux, B. D.: Hebert, E. P.: Hollander, D. B.: Williams, B. M.: Cormier, C. L.: Naquin, M. R.: Gillan, W. W.: Gusew, E. E.: Kraemer, R. R. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2018, Vol.50(3), pp.624-633

Wrist-worn optical and chest strap heart rate comparison in a heterogeneous sample of healthy individuals and in coronary artery disease patients
Sartor, F.: Gelissen, J.: van Dinther, R.: Roovers, D.: Papini, G. B.: Coppola, G. BMC Sports Science, Medicine & Rehabilitation 2018, Vol.10

2017

A QRS Detection and R Point Recognition Method for Wearable Single-Lead ECG Devices
Chen, C. L.: Chuang, C. T. Sensors 2017, Vol.17(9), p.1969

Accuracy and Adoption of Wearable Technology Used by Active Citizens: A Marathon Event Field Study
Pobiruchin, M.: Suleder, J.: Zowalla, R.: Wiesner, M. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 28 February 2017, Vol.5(2), pp.e24

Agreement between Electrocardiogram and Heart Rate Meter Is Low for the Measurement of Heart Rate Variability during Exercise in Young Endurance Horses
Lenoir, A.: Trachsel, D. S.: Younes, M.: Barrey, E.: Robert, C. Frontiers in Veterinary Science Oct 17, 2017

Clinical Evaluation of the Measurement Performance of the Philips Health Watch: A Within-Person Comparative Study
Parak, J. G., Ruijs: Hendrikx, J.: Ruijs, L. S.: Cox, L. G.: Lemmens, P. M.: Schuijers, E. G.: Goris, A. H  JMIR mHealth and uHealth 02 February 2017, Vol.5(2), pp.e10

Comparison of heart-rate-variability recording with smartphone photoplethysmography, polar H7 chest strap, and electrocardiography
Plews, D. J.: Scott, B.: Altini, M.: Wood, M.: Kilding, A. E.: Laursen, P. B. International journal of sports physiology and performance 01 November 2017, Vol.12(10), pp.1324-1328

Comparison of Polar M600 Optical Heart Rate and ECG Heart Rate during Exercise
Horton, J. F.: Stergiou, P.: Fung, T. S.: Katz, L.  Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2017, Vol.49(12), pp.2600-2607

Criterion-Validity of Commercially Available Physical Activity Tracker to Estimate Step Count, Covered Distance and Energy Expenditure during Sports Conditions
Wahl, Y.: Duking, P.: Droszez, A.: Wahl, P.: Mester, J. Frontiers in Physiology 01 September 2017, Vol.8

Effect of Missing Inter-Beat Interval Data on Heart Rate Variability Analysis Using Wrist-Worn Wearables
Baek, H. J.: Shin, J. W.  Journal of Medical Systems 2017, Vol.41(10), pp.1-9

Estimating Accuracy at Exercise Intensities: A Comparative Study of Self-Monitoring Heart Rate and Physical Activity Wearable Devices
Dooley, E. E.: Golaszewski, N. M.: Bartholomew, J. B. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 16 March 2017, Vol.5(3), pp.e34

Estimating Heart Rate, Energy Expenditure, and Physical Performance With a Wrist Photoplethysmographic Device During Running
Parak, J.: Uuskoski, M.: Machek, J.: Korhonen, I. JMIR mHealth and uHealth 25 July 2017, Vol.5(7), pp.e97

Fitbit Charge HR Wireless Heart Rate Monitor: Validation Study Conducted Under Free-Living Conditions
Gorny, A. W.: Liew, S. J.: Tan, C. S.: Müller-Riemenschneider, F.  JMIR mHealth and uHealth 20 October 2017, Vol.5(10), pp.e157

Screening for Atrial Fibrillation using Economical and accurate TechnologY (SAFETY)—a pilot study
Lown, M.: Yue, A.: Lewith, G.: Little, P.: Moore, M.  BMJ Open 13 January 2017, Vol.7(1)

Two-week test–retest reliability of the Polar® RS800CX™ to record heart rate variability
Williams, D. P.: Jarczok, M. N.: Ellis, R. J.: Hillecke, T. K.: Thayer, J. F.: Koenig, J. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging November 2017, Vol.37(6), pp.776-781

Use of individual devices for measuring R-R intervals and heart rate
Farah, L.: Ribas, M. R.: Junior, N. W.: Cendon, R. V.: Salgueirosa, F. M.: Bassan, J. C. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online 2017, Vol.20(4), p.58(8)

Validity and Reliability of the Apple Watch for Measuring Heart Rate During Exercise
Khushhal, A.: Nichols, S.: Evans, W.: Gleadall-Siddall, D. O.: Page, R.: O'Doherty, A. F.: Carroll, S.: Ingle, L.: Abt, G. Sports Med Int Open 2017; 1(06): E206-E211

Variable accuracy of wearable heart rate monitors during aerobic exercise
Gillinov, S.: Etiwy, M.: Wang, R.: Blackburn, G.: Phelan, D.: Gillinov, A. M.: Houghtaling, P.: Javadikasgari, H.: Desai, M. Y. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2017, Vol.49(8), pp.1697-1703

2016

A methodology to quantify the differences between alternative methods of heart rate variability measurement
García-González M, Fernández-Chimeno M, Guede-Fernández F, Ferrer-Mileo V, Argelagós-Palau A, Álvarez-Gómez L, Parrado E, Moreno J, Capdevila L, Ramos-Castro J
Physiol. Meas. 37: 128–144, 2016

Accuracy of elevation recording using sport watches while walking and running on hilly and flat terrain
Ammann R, Taube W, Kummer F, Wyss T
Sports Eng 19: 283–287, 2016

Comparison of Non-Invasive Individual Monitoring of the Training and Health of Athletes with Commercially Available Wearable Technologies
Düking P, Hotho A, Holmberg H-C, Fuss F, Sperlich B
Front. Physiol. 7: 71, 2016

How accurate are the wrist-based heart rate monitors during walking and running activities? Are they accurate enough?
Stahl S, An H-S, Dinkel D, Noble J, Lee J-M
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2, 2016

Options and limitations of heart rate measurement and analysis of heart rate variability by mobile devices. A systematic review
Sammito S, Böckelmann I
Herzschr Elektrophys 27: 38–45, 2016

Reability and validity of a smartphone pulse rate application for the assessment of resting elevated pulse rate
Mitchell K, Graff M, Hedt C, Simmons J
Physiotherapy theory and practice 32(6): 494-499, 2016

Validity of the Polar V800 heart rate monitor to measure RR intervals at rest.
Giles D, Draper N, Neil W
Eur J Appl Physiol 116(3): 563-71, 2016

2015

Concurrent Validity of Resting Pulse-Rate Measurement: A Comparison of 2 Smartphone Applications, the Polar H7 Belt Monitor, and a Pulse Oxitometer with Bluethooth
Cheatham S, Kolber M, Ernst M
Journal of sport rehabilitation 24: 171-178, 2015

On the Design and Implementation of a Highly Accurate Pulse Predictor for Exercise Equipment
Kay S, Ding Q, Li D
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING 62(8): 1918-1926, 2015

Personal-Statistics-Based Heart Rate Evaluation in Anytime Risk Calculation Model
Tóth-Laufer E, Várkonyi-Kóczy A
TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT 64(8), 2127-2135, 2015

Polar OwnIndex is not a reliable indicator of aerobic training status
Köteles F, Dömötör Z, Berkes T, Szemerszky R
Acta Physiologica Hungarica 102(4): 419–427, 2015

Validation of photoplethysmography as a method to detect heart rate during rest and exercise
Spierer D, Rosen Z, Litman L, Fujii K
J Med Eng Technol 39(5): 264–271, 2015

2014

COMPARISON OF POLAR® RS800G3™ HEART RATE MONITOR WITH POLAR® S810I™ AND ELECTROCARDIOGRAM TO OBTAIN THE SERIES OF RR INTERVALS AND ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY AT REST
Rezende Barbosa MP, Silva NT, Azevedo FM, Pastre CM, Vanderlei LCM
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, published online Oct 2014

EVALUATION OF AN EXERCISE FIELD TEST USING HEART RATE MONITORS TO ASSESS CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND HEART RATE RECOVERY IN AN ASYMPTOMATIC POPULATION
Coolbaugh CL, Anderson IB, Wilson MD, Hawkins DA, Amsterdam EA
PLoS ONE 9(5): e97704, 2014

MONITORING CHANGES IN VO2MAX VIA THE POLAR FT40 IN FEMALE COLLEGIATE SOCCER PLAYERS
Esco MR, Snarr RL, Williford HN
Journal of Sports Sciences 32(11): 1084-1090, 2014

2013

VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF POLAR® RS800CX HEART RATE MONITOR, MEASURING HEART RATE IN DOGS DURING STANDING POSITION AND AT TROT ON A TREADMILL
Essner A, Sjöström R, Ahlgren E, Lindmark B
Physiology & Behavior 114–115: 1–5, 2013

2012

BIOHARNESSTM MULTIVARIABLE MONITORING DEVICE. PART I: VALIDITY
Johnstone JA, Ford PA, Hughes G, Watson T, Garrett AT
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11: 400-408, 2012

COMPARISON OF FOUR DIFFERENT MOBILE DEVICES FOR MEASURING HEART RATE AND ECG WITH RESPECT TO ASPECTS OF USABILITY AND ACCEPTANCE BY OLDER PEOPLE
Ehmen H, Haesner M, Steinke I, Dorn M, Gövercin M, Steinhagen-Thiessen E
Appl Ergon 43(3): 582–7, 2012

COMPARISON OF HEART RATE MEASURED BY POLAR RS400 AND ECG, VALIDITY AND REPEATABILITY
Engström E, Ottosson E, Wohlfart B, Grundström N, Wisén A
Advances in Physiotherapy 14: 115–122, 2012

FIELD BASED RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE BIOHARNESSTM MULTIVARIABLE MONITORING DEVICE
Johnstone JA, Ford PA, Hughes G, Watson T, Mitchell ACS, Garrett AT
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11: 643-652, 2012

MONITORING CHANGES IN PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE WITH HEART RATE MEASURES IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS
Buchheit M, Simpson MB, Al Haddad H, Bourdon PC, Mendez-Villanueva A
Eur J Appl Physiol 112(2): 711-72, 2012

POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE POLAR RS800 IN MEASURING HEART RATE VARIABILITY AT REST
Wallén MB, Hasson D, Theorell T, Canlon B, Osika W
Eur J Appl Physiol 112(3): 1153-65, 2012

WRIST-WORN ACCELEROMETERS IN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE DURING INTENSIVE TRAINING
Kinnunen H, Tanskanen M, Kyröläinen H, Westerterp KR
Physiol Meas 33, 2012

2011

BENEFITS OF ACHIEVING VIGOROUS AS WELL AS MODERATE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY RECOMMENDATIONS: EVIDENCE FROM HEART RATE COMPLEXITY AND CARDIAC VAGAL MODULATION
Soares-Miranda L, Sandercock G, Vale S, Silva P, Moreira C, Santos R, Mota J
J Sports Sci 29(10): 1011-8, 2011

CROSS-VALIDATION OF THE POLAR FITNESS TESTTM VIA THE POLAR F11 HEART RATE MONITOR IN PREDICTING VO2 MAX
Esco MR, Mugu EM, Williford HN, McHugh AN, Bloomquist BE
J Exerc Physiol Online 14(5): 31-7, 2011

HEART RATE VARIABILITY DURING A 24-HOUR PERIOD RECORDED WITH A POLAR HEART RATE MONITOR
Osanai H
Autonomic Neuroscience 165(2): 210, 2011

RELIABILITY OF RESTING AND POSTEXERCISE HEART RATE MEASURES  
Al Haddad H, Laursen PB, Chollet D, Ahmaidi S, Buchheit M
Int J Sports Med 32(8): 598-605, 2011

SCIENTIFIC COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT ONLINE HEART RATE MONITORING SYSTEMS
Schönfelder M, Hinterseher G, Peter P, Spitzenpfeil P
Int J Telemed Appl, 2011

VALIDITY OF THE SMARTHEALTH WATCH TO MEASURE HEART RATE DURING REST AND EXERCISE
Lee CM, Gorelick M
Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci 15(1): 18-25, 2011

2010

COMPARISON OF OMEGA WAVE SYSTEM AND POLAR S810I TO DETECT R-R INTERVALS AT REST
Parrado E, García MÁ,  Ramos J, Cervantes JC, Rodas G, Capdevila L
Int J Sports Med 31(5): 336-41, 2010

COMPARISON OF THREE MOBILE DEVICES FOR MEASURING R–R INTERVALS AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY: POLAR S810I, SUUNTO T6 AND AN AMBULATORY ECG SYSTEM
Weippert M, Kumar M, Kreuzfeld S, Arndt D, Rieger A and Stoll R
Eur J Appl Physiol 109(4): 779-86, 2010

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESTING HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND HEART RATE RECOVERY
Esco MR, Olson MS, Williford HN, Blessing DL, Shannon D and Grandjean P
Clin Aut Res 20(1): 33-8, 2010

2009

COMPARISON OF TIME-DOMAIN SHORT-TERM HEART INTERVAL VARIABILITY ANALYSIS USING A WRIST-WORN HEART RATE MONITOR AND THE CONVENTIONAL ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
Porto LG, Junqueira LF JrPacing Clin Electrophysiol 32(1):43-51, 2009

EXPLORING ACTICAL ACCELEROMETERS AS AN OBJECTIVE MEASURE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
Kayes NM, Schluter PJ, McPherson KM, Leete M, Mawston G, Taylor DArch Phys Med Rehabil 90(4):594-600, 2009

MEASURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY WITH SENSORS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY
Dias A, Fisterer B, Lamla G, Kuhn K, Hartvigsen G, Horsch AStud Health Technol Inform 150:475-9, 2009

VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF CARDIORESPIRATORY MEASUREMENTS RECORDED BY THE LIFESHIRT DURING EXERCISE TESTS
Kent L, O'Neill B, Davison G, Nevill A, Elborn JS, Bradley JMRespir Physiol Neurobiol 167(2):162-7, 2009

2008

THE RELIABILITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES DURING SIMULATED TEAM-SPORT RUNNING ON A NON-MOTORISED TREADMILL
Sirotic AC, Coutts AJJ Sci Med Sport 11(5):500-9, 2008

USING THREE OBJECTIVE CRITERIA TO EXAMINE PEDOMETER GUIDELINES FOR FREE-LIVING INDIVIDUALS
Macfarlane DJ, Chan D, Chan KL, Ho EY, Lee CCEur J Appl Physiol 104(3):435-44, 2008

2006

AGREEMENT BETWEEN POLAR AND SRM MOBILE ERGOMETER SYSTEMS DURING LABORATORY-BASED HIGH-INTENSITY, INTERMITTENT CYCLING ACTIVITY
Hurst HT, Atkins SJ Sports Sci: 24(8): 863-8, 2006

2005

COMPARISON OF POLAR S810 AND AN AMBULATORY ECG SYSTEM FOR RR INTERVAL MEASUREMENT DURING PROGRESSIVE EXERCISE
Kingsley M., Lewis M.J., Marson R.E.Int J Sports Med, 26:39-44, 2005

2001

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ESTIMATED ENERGY EXPENDITURE PREDICTED BY THE POLAR SMARTEDGE OWNCAL MONITOR
Kern M., Cowey C.Abstract in Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(5):nr 147, 2001

1998

HEART RATE MONITORS - STATE OF THE ART
Laukkanen R.M.T., Virtanen P.; Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, FinlandJ Sports Sci, Suppl, 16:53-7, 1998

REPRODUCIBILITY OF INDIVIDUAL HEART RATE DETERMINED BY POLAR SMARTEDGE HRM
Kinnunen H.O., Tulppo M.P., Mäkikallio T.H., Hyyppä O.I., Nissilä S.M., Laukkanen R.T.Abstract in International 15thuijo Symposium, June 22-25, Kuopio, Finland, 1998

1997

ACCURACY OF A REAL-TIME QRS DETECTOR FOR HEART RATE VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT
Loimaala A., Sievänen H., Laukkanen R., Pärkkä J., Vuori I., Huikuri H.; UKK Institute, Tampere, FinlandAbstract in The XVIth Nordic Congress of Cardiology, Tampere, Finland, 1997

1996

ACCURACY OF SELF-REPORTED HEART RATE AT ASSESSING EXERCISE HEART RATE DURING AEROBIC DANCE
Bryant D.M., Abraham A., Provost-Craig M.; Department of Physical Education-Exercise Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, USAMed Sci Sports Exerc, Suppl, 28 (5): 209, 1996

VALIDITY AND SOCIAL ACCEPTABILITY OF THE POLAR VANTAGE XL FOR MEASURING HEART RATE IN PRESCHOOLERS
Bar-Or T., Bar-Or O., Waters H., Hirji A., Russell S.; USAPediatr Exerc Sci 8(2): 115-121, 1996

1993

PE WITH A HEARTBEAT - HI-TECH PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Strand B., Reeder S.JOPERD 64: 81-84, 1993

RELIABILITY AND VARIABILITY OF INDICATORS OF HEART-RATE MONITORING IN CHILDREN
Durant R.H., Baranowski T., Davis H., Rhodes T., Thompson W.O., Greaves K.A., Puhl J.; Section of General Pediatrics and Adolescents Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USAMed Sci Sports Exerc 25(3): 389-395, 1993

1992

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE ACCURACY OF THE POLAR FAVOR AND THE POLAR EDGE HEART RATE MONITORS COMPARED WITH DIRECT ECG
Lewis D.J., Salisury C.; Officer Commanding ResearchReport to Leisure System International, 1992

ASSESSMENT OF HEART RATES OBSERVED USING A POLAR HEART RATE MONITOR AND PALPATED PULSE RATES WITH WATER ACTIVITIES
Rippe J.M.; Exercise Physiology and Nutrition Laboratory, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USAReport to Polar Electro, No. EPNL - 1992-003, 1992

1991

COMMENT ON HEART RATE RECORDING IN FIELD STUDIES
Gretebeck R.J., Montoye H.J., Ballor D., Montoye A.P.; Biodynamics Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USAJ Sport Med Phys Fit 31(4): 629-631, 1991

COMPARISON BETWEEN PALPATED HEART RATES AND HEART RATES OBSERVED USING THE POLAR FAVOR HEART RATE MONITOR DURING AN AEROBICS EXERCISE CLASS
Ebbeling C.B., Ebbeling C.J., Ward A., Rippe J.M.; Exercise Physiology and Nutrition Laboratory, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USAReport to Polar Electro, No. EPNL - 1991-010, 1991

HOW WELL DOES THE POLAR VANTAGE XL HEART RATE MONITOR ESTIMATE ACTUAL HEART RATE?
Godsen R., Carroll T., Stone S.; College of Charleston, SC, USAMed Sci Sports Exerc, Suppl, 23(4): 14, 1991

THE ACCURACY OF CHILDREN'S COUNTING OF EXERCISE HEART RATES
Best R.W, Steinhardt M.A.; University of Texas, Austin, TX, USAPediatr Exerc Sci 3(3): 229-237,1991

THE ACCURACY OF RADIO TELEMETRY HEART RATE MONITORING DURING EXERCISE
Wajciechowski J.A., Gayle R.C., Andrews R.L., Dintiman G.B.; Division of Health and Physical Education, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAClinical Kinesiology 45: 9-12, 1991

THE POLAR VANTAGE XL HEART RATE MONITOR: AN ANALYSIS OF ITS INTERNAL CONSISTENCY AND COMPUTER INTERFACE
Carrol T., Godsen R., Tangeman C.; College of Charleston, SC, USAMed Sci Sports Exerc, Suppl, 23(4): 14, 1991

1990

THE PRECISION AND ACCURACY OF A PORTABLE HEART RATE MONITOR
Seaward B.L., Sleamaker R.H., McAuliffe T., Clapp J.F.; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, USABiomed Instrum Technol 24(1): 37-41, 1990

1989

CRITICAL REVIEW OF HEART RATE MONITORS
Thivierge M., Leger L.; Department of Physical Education, University of Montreal, CanadaCAHPER J 55(3): 26-31, 1989

THE ACCURACY AND VARIABILITY OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE HEART RATE MONITORS
Macfarlane D.J., Fogarty B.A., Hopkins W.C.The New Zealand Journal of Sports Medicine 17(4): 51-53, 1989

VALIDATION OF A HEART RATE MONITOR WITH CHILDREN IN LABORATORY AND FIELD SETTINGS
Treiber F.A., Musante L., Hartdagan S., Davis H., Levy M., Strong W.B.; Department of Pediatrics, Georgia Institute for the Prevention of Human Disease and Accidents, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USAMed Sci Sports Exerc 21(3): 338-342, 1989

1988

HEART RATE MONITORS: VALIDITY, STABILITY AND FUNCTIONALITY
Leger L., Thivierge M.; Department of Physical Education, University of Montreal, CanadaPhysician and Sports Med 16(5): 143-151, 1988

VALIDITY OF HEART RATE MONITORS
Thivierge M., Leger L.; Department of Physical Education, University of Montreal, CanadaSci et Sports 3(3): 211-221, 1988

1986

SPORT TESTER PE 3000 VS HOLTER ECG FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF HEART FREQUENCY
Vogelaere P., De Meyer F., Duquet W., Vandevelde P.; Hoger Instituut voor Lichamelijke Opvoeding, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, BelgiqueSci et Sports 1(4): 321-329, 1986

1984

COMPARISON OF HEART RATES MEASURED BY ECG AND MICROCOMPUTER
Karvonen J., Chwalbinska-Monet J., Säynäjäkangas S.; Department of Clinical Physiology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, FinlandPhysician and Sport Med 12(6): 65-69,1984

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