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Research Library

Since the first Polar heart rate monitor was developed in 1982, Polar Electro has been committed to conducting innovative physiological and sports medical research. In addition to our own research, Polar heart rate monitoring and analyzing technology has been used by numerous researchers in the fields of sports, exercise and health. In our Research Library you’ll find numerous articles about the research we and other organizations have carried out in relation to Polar products and exercise training.

The articles are listed under several different categories and are presented according to their published year. Complete reference information is given for each study, so the original work is easy to obtain from the library and reprint requests can be sent directly to the author.

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Exercise & Heat


Acute glutamine supplementation does not improve 20-km self-paced cycling performance in the heat
Osborne, J.O., Stewart, I.B., Beagley, K.W. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2019) 119: 2567

Ad libitum water consumption off-sets the thermal and cardiovascular strain exacerbated by dehydration during a 3-h simulated heatwave
Graham, C., Morris, N.B., Harwood, A.E. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2019).

Air/CO2 cooling garment: Description and benefits of use for subjects exposed to a hot and humid climate during physical activities
Al Sayed, C., Vinches, L., Dupuy, O., Douzi, W., Dugue, B. & Hallé, S. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, Volume 29, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages 899-903

Brief in-play cooling breaks reduce thermal strain during football in hot conditions
Chalmers, S., Siegler, J., Lovell, R., Lynch, G., Gregson, W., Marshall, P. & Jay, O. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport August 2019, Vol.22(8), pp.912-917

Exertional heat illness risk factors and physiological responses of youth football players
Yeargin, S. W., Dickinson, J. J., Emerson, D. M., Koller, J., Torres-Mcgehee, T. M. & Kerr, Z. Y. Journal of Sport and Health Science. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2019.03.002

Exposure to high solar radiation reduces self-regulated exercise intensity in the heat outdoors
Otani, H., Kaya, M., Tamaki, A., Goto, H. & Maughan, R. J. Physiology & Behavior 01 February 2019, Vol.199, pp.191-199

Gene expression profiling of humans under exertional heat stress: Comparisons between persons with and without exertional heat stroke.
Ren, M. Q., Kazman, J. B., Abraham, P. A., Atias-Varon, D., Heled, Y. & Deuster, P. A. Journal of Thermal Biology, 2019; 85 . doi:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2019.102423

Heat dissipating upper body compression garment: Thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and perceptual responses
Leoz-Abaurrea, I., Tam, N. & Aguado-Jiménez, R. Journal of Sport and Health Science September 2019, Vol.8(5), pp.450-456

Heat stress impairs proprioception but not running mechanics
Mtibaa, K., Zarrouk, N., Girard, O., Ryu, J. H., Hautier, C. & Racinais, S. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport December 2019, Vol.22(12), pp.1361-1366

Intermittent sprint performance in the heat is not altered by augmenting thermal perception via L-menthol or capsaicin mouth rinses
Gibson, O.R., Wrightson, J.G. & Hayes, M. Eur J Appl Physiol (2019) 119: 653

Internal precooling decreases forehead and core temperature but does not alter choice reaction time during steady state exercise in hot, humid conditions
Saldaris, J. M., Landers, G. J., Lay, B. S. & Zimmermann, M. R. Journal of Thermal Biology April 2019, Vol.81, pp.66-72

Listening to motivational music mitigates heat-related reductions in exercise performance
English, T., Mavros, Y. & Jay, O. Physiology & Behavior 01 September 2019, Vol.208, p.112567

Physiological and perceptual responses while wearing stab-resistant body armor in hot and humid environment
Yuan, M., Li, N., Wei, Y. & Yang, J. Journal of Thermal Biology December 2019, Vol.86

Rating of perceived exertion increases synergistically during prolonged exercise in a combined heat and hypoxic environment
Levine, A. & Buono, M. J. Journal of Thermal Biology August 2019, Vol.84, pp.99-102

Recovery of Heart Rate Variability After Exercise Under Hot Conditions: The Effect of Relative Humidity
Abellán-Aynés, O., López-Plaza, D., Alacid, F., Naranjo-Orellana, J. & Manonelles, P. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine September 2019, Vol.30(3), pp.260-267

Reliability of a wearable sweat rate monitor and routine sweat analysis techniques under heat stress in females
Relf, R., Willmott, A., Flint, M. S., Beale, L. & Maxwell, N. Journal of Thermal Biology January 2019, Vol.79, pp.209-217

Short-term isothermic heat acclimation elicits beneficial adaptations but medium-term elicits a more complete adaptation
Moss, J.N., Bayne, F.M., Castelli, F. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2019).

The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on intestinal injury and circulating intestinal bacterial DNA following exercise in the heat
March, D.S., Jones, A.W., Thatcher, R. et al. Eur J Nutr (2019) 58: 1441

The effect of cycling in the heat on gastrointestinal-induced damage and neuromuscular fatigue
Osborne, J.O., Stewart, I.B., Beagley, K.W. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2019) 119: 1829

The effects of lower body passive heating combined with mixed-method cooling during half-time on second-half intermittent sprint performance in the heat
Soo, J., Tang, G., Arjunan, S.P. et al. Eur J Appl Physiol (2019) 119: 1885


Ad libitum drinking adequately supports hydration during 2 h of running in different ambient temperatures
Hoffman, Martin D ; Snipe, Rhiannon M J ; Costa, Ricardo J S European journal of applied physiology December 2018, Vol.118(12), pp.2687-2697

Cyclooxygenase‐1 and ‐2 modulate sweating but not cutaneous vasodilation during exercise in the heat in young men
Fujii, N.: Pastore, O. L.: McGarr, G. W.: Meade, R. D.: McNeely, B. D.: Nishiyasu, T.: Kenny, G. P. Physiological Reports September 2018, Vol.6(17

Dietary curcumin supplementation does not alter peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to exertional heat stress
Falgiano, Peter A ; Gillum, Trevor L ; Schall, Zach J ; Strag, Harrison R ; Kuennen, Matthew R European journal of applied physiology December 2018, Vol.118(12), pp.2707-2717

Diurnal Variation in Physiological and Immune Responses to Endurance Sport in Highly Trained Runners in a Hot and Humid Environment
Boukelia, B. Gomes, E. C.: Florida-James, G. D. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01 January 2018, Vol.2018

Does the temperature of water ingested during exertional-heat stress influence gastrointestinal injury, symptoms, and systemic inflammatory profile?
Snipe, R. M. J.: Costa, Ricardo J. S. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport August 2018, Vol.21(8), pp.771-776

Effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses to submaximal cycling in the heat
Kent, Georgina ; Dawson, Brian ; Cox, Gregory ; Abbiss, Chris ; Smith, Kurt ; Croft, Kevin ; Lim, Zi ; Eastwood, Annette ; Burke, Louise ; Peeling, Peter European Journal of Applied Physiology 2018, Vol.118(3), pp.657-668

Effect of water immersion temperature on heart rate variability following exercise in the heat
Choo, H. C.: Nosaka, K.: Peiffer, J. J.: Ihsan, M.: Yeo, C. C.: Abbiss, C. R. Kinesiology 2018, Vol.50(S1), p.67(8)

Effects of Half-Time Cooling Using A Cooling Glove and Jacket on Manual Dexterity and Repeated-Sprint Performance in Heat
Maroni, T.: Dawson, B.: Dennis, M.: Naylor, L.: Brade, C.: Wallman, K.  Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2018, Vol.17(3), p.485(7)

Effects of heat stress and dehydration on cognitive function in elite female field hockey players
MacLeod, H.: Cooper, S.: Bandelow, S.: Malcolm, R.: Sunderland, C. BMC Sports Science, Medicine & Rehabilitation 2018, Vol.10

Immune Response in Women during Exercise in the Heat: A Spotlight on Oral Contraception
Larsen, B.: Cox, A. J.: Quinn, K.: Fisher, R.: Minahan, C. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2018, Vol.17(2), p.229(8)

Impact of ambient temperature on energy cost and economical speed during level walking in healthy young males
Horiuchi, M.: Handa, Y.: Fukuoka, Y. Biology Open 01 July 2018, Vol.7(7)

Impact of upper body precooling during warm-up on subsequent time trial paced cycling in the heat
Katica, C. P.: Wingo, Jonathan E.: Herron, Robert L.: Ryan, Greg A.: Bishop, Stacy H.: Richardson, Mark Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport June 2018, Vol.21(6), pp.621-625

Individualized estimation of human core body temperature using noninvasive measurements
Laxminarayan, S.: Rakesh, V.: Oyama, T.: Kazman, J. B.: Yanovich, R.: Ketko, I.: Epstein, Y.: Morrison, S.: Reifman, J. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 01 June 2018, Vol.124(6), pp.1387-1402

Inter-individual variation in the adaptive response to heat acclimation
Corbett, J.: Rendell, Rebecca A.: Massey, Heather C.: Costello, Joseph T.: Tipton, Michael J. Journal of Thermal Biology May 2018, Vol.74, p.29

Interactions between perceived exertion and thermal perception in the heat in endurance athletes
Roussey, G.: Gruet, Mathieu: Vercruyssen, Fabrice: Louis, Julien: Vallier, Jean-Marc: Bernard, Thierry Journal of Thermal Biology August 2018, Vol.76, pp.68-76

Intermittent sprint performance in the heat is not altered by augmenting thermal perception via L-menthol or capsaicin mouth rinses
Gibson, O. R.: Wrightson, J. G.: Hayes, M. European journal of applied physiology 22 December 2018

l-Menthol mouth rinse or ice slurry ingestion during the latter stages of exercise in the heat provide a novel stimulus to enhance performance despite elevation in mean body temperature
Jeffries, O.: Goldsmith, M.: Waldron, M. European journal of applied physiology November 2018, Vol.118(11), pp.2435-2442

Once‐ and twice‐daily heat acclimation confer similar heat adaptations, inflammatory responses and exercise tolerance improvements
Willmott, A. G. B.: Hayes, M.: James, C. A.: Dekerle, J.: Gibson, O. R.: Maxwell, N. S. Physiological reports December 2018, Vol.6(24), pp.e13936

Optimal cooling strategies for players in Australian Tennis Open conditions
Lynch, G. P.: Périard, Julien D.: Pluim, Babette M.: Brotherhood, John R.: Jay, Ollie  Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport March 2018, Vol.21(3), pp.232-237

Personalized Hydration Strategy Attenuates the Rise in Heart Rate and in Skin Temperature Without Altering Cycling Capacity in the Heat
de Melo-Marins, D.: Souza-Silva, A. A.: da Silva-Santos, G. L. L.: Freire-Júnior Fde, A.: Lee, J. K. W.: Laitano, O. Frontiers in Nutrition April 12, 2018

Physiological and perceptual responses in the elderly to simulated daily living activities in UK summer climatic conditions
Waldock, K. A. M.: Hayes, M.: Watt, P. W.: Maxwell, N. S. Public Health August 2018, Vol.161, pp.163-170

Physiological and perceptual responses to exercising in restrictive heat loss attire with use of an upper-body sauna suit in temperate and hot conditions
Willmott, A. G. B.: Gibson, O. R.: James, C. A.: Hayes, M.: Maxwell, N. S. Temperature 03 April 2018, Vol.5(2), pp.162-174

Short term heat acclimation reduces heat stress, but is not augmented by dehydration
Schleh, M. W.: Ruby, Brent C.: Dumke, Charles L. Journal of Thermal Biology December 2018, Vol.78, pp.227-234

Sleep quantity and quality during consecutive day heat training with the inclusion of cold-water immersion recovery
Skein, M.: Wingfield, Georgia: Gale, Rachel: Washington, Tracy L.: Minett, Geoffrey M.  Journal of Thermal Biology May 2018, Vol.74, p.63

Spatial and temporal migration of sweat: from skin to clothing
Raccuglia, M.: Heyde, C.: Lloyd, A.: Hodder, S.: Havenith, G. European journal of applied physiology October 2018, Vol.118(10), pp.2155-2169

The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on intestinal injury and circulating intestinal bacterial DNA following exercise in the heat
March, Daniel S. ; Jones, Arwel W. ; Thatcher, Rhys ; Davison, Glen European Journal of Nutrition 2019, Vol.58(4), p.1441(11)

The effect of hot and cold drinks on thermoregulation, perception, and performance: the role of the gut in thermoreception
Barwood, Martin J ; Goodall, Stuart ; Bateman, Jon European journal of applied physiology December 2018, Vol.118(12), pp.2643-2654

The effect of ice slurry ingestion on body temperature and cycling performance in competitive athletes
Mejuto, G.: Chalmers, Samuel: Gilbert, Stephanie: Bentley, David Journal of Thermal Biology February 2018, Vol.72, pp.143-147

The impact of environmental temperature deception on perceived exertion during fixed-intensity exercise in the heat in trained-cyclists
Borg, D. N.: Stewart, I. B.: Costello, J. T.: Drovandi, C. C.: Minett, G. M. Physiology & Behavior 01 October 2018, Vol.194, pp.333-340

Thermoregulatory burden of elite sailing athletes during exercise in the heat: A pilot study
van Delden, M.: Bongers, Ccwg: Broekens, D.: Daanen, H. A. M.: Eijsvogels, T. M. H.  Temperature 2019, Vol.6, pp.66-76


A Research on Characteristics of Human Heat Stress in Dynamic Hot Environment
Yang, X. Li, Baizhan: Li, Yongqiang: Wang, Yuchen: Zheng, Caidan  Procedia Engineering 2017, Vol.205, pp.2749-2754

Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heat
James, C. A.: Hayes, M.: Willmott, A. G. B.: Gibson, O. R.: Flouris, A. D.: Schlader, Z. J.: Maxwell, N. S. Temperature 03 July 2017, Vol.4(3), pp.314-329

Do nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase contribute to sweating response during passive heating in endurance‐trained athletes?
Amano, T.: Fujii, N.: Kenny, G. P.: Inoue, Y.: Kondo, N. Physiological Reports September 2017, Vol.5(17)

Effect of a moderate caffeine dose on endurance cycle performance and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in the heat
Beaumont, R. E.: James, Lewis J.  Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport November 2017, Vol.20(11), pp.1024-1028

Effect of the timing of ice slurry ingestion for precooling on endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment
Takeshima, K. Onitsuka, Sumire: Xinyan, Zheng: Hasegawa, Hiroshi Journal of Thermal Biology April 2017, Vol.65, pp.26-31

Effects of Fluid Ingestion on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognition During Exercise in the Heat
Roh, H. T.: So, W. Y.: Cho, S. Y.: Suh, S. H. Journal of Human Kinetics 01 August 2017, Vol.58(1), pp.73-86

Fluid replacement modulates oxidative stress- but not nitric oxide-mediated cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during prolonged exercise in the heat
McNeely, B. D.: Meade, R. D.: Fujii, N.: Seely, A. J. E.: Sigal, R. J.: Kenny, G. P. American Journal of Physiology (Consolidated) 2017, Vol.313(6), p.R730(10)

Heat and Dehydration Additively Enhance Cardiovascular Outcomes following Orthostatically-Stressful Calisthenics Exercise
Akerman, A. P.: Lucas, S. J. E.: Katare, R.: Cotter, J. D. Frontiers in Physiology 01 October 2017, Vol.8, p.756

Heat and Hypoxic Acclimation Increase Monocyte Heat Shock Protein 72 but Do Not Attenuate Inflammation following Hypoxic Exercise
Lee, B. J.: Thake, C. D. Frontiers in Physiology 01 October 2017, Vol.8:811

Heat shock protein 90 contributes to cutaneous vasodilation through activating nitric oxide synthase in young male adults exercising in the heat
Fujii, N.: Zchang, S. Y.: McNeely, B. D.: Nishiyasu, T.: Kenny, G. P. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 01 October 2017, Vol.123(4), pp.844-850

Hybrid cooling vest for cooling between exercise bouts in the heat: Effects and practical considerations
Chan, A. P. C. Yang, Yang: Song, Wen-fang: Wong, Del P. Journal of Thermal Biology Jan 2017, Vol.63, p.1

Individual variations in nitric oxide synthase‐dependent sweating in young and older males during exercise in the heat: role of aerobic power
Amano, T.: Fujii, N.: Louie, J. C.: Meade, R. D.: Kenny, G. P. Physiological Reports March 2017, Vol.5(6)

Influence of menstrual phase and arid vs. humid heat stress on autonomic and behavioural thermoregulation during exercise in trained but unacclimated women
Lei, T.: Stannard, S. R.: Perry, B. G.: Schlader, Z. J.: Cotter, J. D.: Mündel, T. Journal of Physiology 01 May 2017, Vol.595(9), pp.2823-2837

Intraocular Pressure Is a Poor Predictor of Hydration Status following Intermittent Exercise in the Heat
Stewart, I. B.: Dias, B.: Borg, D. N.: Bach, A. J. E.: Feigl, B.: Costello, J. T. Frontiers in Physiology Feb 1, 2017: 36

Mechanical Alterations Associated with Repeated Treadmill Sprinting under Heat Stress
Girard, O.: Brocherie, F.: Morin, J. B.: Racinais, S.: Millet, G. P.: Périard, J. D. PLoS ONE Feb 1, 2017, Vol.12(2), p.e0170679

Mitochondrial efficiency and exercise economy following heat stress: a potential role of uncoupling protein 3
Salgado, R. M.: Sheard, A. C.: Vaughan, R. A.: Parker, D. L.: Schneider, S. M.: Kenefick, R. W.: McCormick, J. J.: Gannon, N. P.: Van Dusseldorp, T. A.: Kravitz, L. R.: Mermier, C. M. Physiological Reports February 2017, Vol.5(3)

No effect of ascorbate on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in older men and those with type 2 diabetes exercising in the heat
Fujii, N.: Meade, R. D.: Akbari, P.: Louie, J. C.: Alexander, L. M.: Boulay, P.: Sigal, R. J.: Kenny, G. P. Physiological Reports April 2017, Vol.5(7), e13238

Non-invasive Measures of Core Temperature versus Ingestible Thermistor during Exercise in the Heat
Fogt, D. L.: Henning, A. L.: Venable, A. S.: McFarlin, B. K. International journal of exercise science 2017, Vol.10(2), pp.225-233

Oral l-menthol reduces thermal sensation, increases work-rate and extends time to exhaustion, in the heat at a fixed rating of perceived exertion
Flood T R, Waldron M, Jeffries O European Journal of Applied Physiology 2017, Vol.117(7), pp.1501-1512

Passive Heating Attenuates Post-exercise Cardiac Autonomic Recovery in Healthy Young Males
Peçanha, T.: de Moraes Forjaz, C.: Low, D. A.  Frontiers in Neuroscience Dec 21, 2017: 727

Response of women using oral contraception to exercise in the heat
Minahan C, Melnikoff M, Quinn K, Larsen B  European Journal of Applied Physiology 2017, Vol.117(7), pp.1383-1391

Separate and combined effects of exposure to heat stress and mental fatigue on endurance exercise capacity in the heat
Otani H, Kaya M, Tamaki A, Watson P  European Journal of Applied Physiology 2017, Vol.117(1), pp.119-129

The Effect of Being Aerobically Active vs. Inactive on Cutaneous Vascular Conductance during Local Heat Stress in an Older Population
Mitchell, U. H.: Burton, S.: Gordon, C.: Mack, G. W. Front Physiol. 2017; 8: 859.

The Effect of Head-to-Head Competition on Behavioural Thermoregulation, Thermophysiological Strain and Performance During Exercise in the Heat
Corbett, J. W., D. K.: Barwood, M. J.: Wagstaff, C. R. D.: Tipton, M. J.: McMorris, T.: Costello, J. T. Sports Medicine 2018, Vol.48(5), p.1281(4)

The Effect of Intermittent Head Cooling on Aerobic Performance in the Heat
Walters, P.: Thom, N.: Libby, K.: Edgren, S.: Azadian, A.: Tannous, D.: Sorenson, E.: Hunt, B. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2017, Vol.16(1), p.77(7)

The roles of KCa, KATP, and KV channels in regulating cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat
Louie, J. C.: Fujii, N.: Meade, R. D.: McNeely, B. D.: Kenny, G. P.  American Journal of Physiology (Consolidated) May, 2017, Vol.312(5), p.R821(7)

Transition duration of ingested deuterium oxide to eccrine sweat during exercise in the heat
Church, A.: Lee, Fanny: Buono, Michael J. Journal of Thermal Biology January 2017, Vol.63, pp.88-91

Wearing graduated compression stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation but not sweating during exercise in the heat
Fujii, N.: Nikawa, T.: Tsuji, B.: Kenny, G. P.: Kondo, N.: Nishiyasu, T. Physiological Reports May 2017, Vol.5(9)

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